From a Classical Point of view, Energy may be categorized in different ways, one approach is to classify energy as either Kinetic or Potential.
From a practical point of view, however, It is convenient to describe the forms of energy according to how they are produced and utilized. It is also crucial to understand how one form of energy can be converted into another.
Forms Of Energy
Energy can take on may forms :-
-Kinetic Energy (e.g, of a moving automobiles)
-Gravitational Potential Energy (e.g, of a water reservoir)
-Thermal Energy (e.g, in a pot of boiling water)
-Chemical Energy (e.g, stored in a liar of gasoline )
-Nuclear Energy (e.g, stored in a gram of uranium)
-Electrical Energy (e.g, used in light bulbs)
-Electromagnetic Energy (e.g, that associated with a beam of sunlight)
These categories of energy are merely convenient ways of describing energy from different Sources, They are not necessarily unique or mutually exclusive, nor is the list necessarily comprehensive. For Example, thermal energy might be thought of as the microscopic kinetic energy of the molecules of the material.
Both chemical and nuclear energy can be viewed as manifestations of the mass-energy associated with bonds in a material, However, these seven categories are convenient ways of defining the forms of energy from a practical standpoint.
How To Make Use Of Energy
To make use of energy, then it’s generally necessary to convert energy from the form in which it is obtained to a form that is compatible with our needs. For Example, the stored chemical energy in a liter of gasoline can be converted to heat and then to mechanical energy to move a vehicle. Energy conversions are an important aspect of the utilization of energy sources and the efficiency of these conversions is crucial to the viable utilization of energy sources.
In any process, energy always conversed. (In nuclear physics, the conversion of the mass-energy rather than the conversion of energy itself is employed because there is an equivalence between these two quantities) However, in any energy conversion process all of the energy does not end up in the form needed, Each of these Forms will be discussed briefly.
Kinetic energy is most obviously associated with moving objects.
Potential energy is most conveniently thought of in terms of gravitational potential, as explained. The concept of Potential energy also applies to other situations, such as the energy contained in compressed Spring.
This Potential energy can be converted into kinetic energy by allowing the object to fall through a distance.
The thermal energy of a gas results from the kinetic energy of the microscopic movement of the molecules. Each molecule has kinetic energy associated with it.
Chemical energy is the energy associated with chemical bonds, which is the interaction energy between atomic electrons in a material. Energy can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction as a result of changes in the bonds between atoms.
If the process requires energy to be input for the reaction to occur, Then the process is referred to as endothermic, In general, these kinds of processes are of no use in the production of energy, although they can be useful in the storage of it.
Processes that release energy are referred to as exothermic and are of interest to this discussion, In General, oxidation reaction falls into this category some of the most relevant for the production of energy is a reaction between atoms that involve the atomic electrons.
Electrical energy is associated with electrons in a conductor, it is conventional to deal with the microscopic representation of electrical energy in terms of voltages and currents without the need to be concerned with the microscopic description of the electrons.
Electromagnetic radiation may be thought of in terms of associated electric and magnetic fields that form waves (such as light waves)m it may also be thought of in the quantum mechanical sense. as a collection of particles called photons.
This radiation covers a wide range of wavelengths, different wavelength regimes are for example X-rays, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, radio waves, and so on.
Electromagnetic radiation from the sun is one of our most important sources of energy because it is the basic source responsible for most other sources of energy such as fossil fuels, wind, solar radiation, and biomass energy.